Philip Hans Franses, who acts as rector during this defense, still has to put on his gown.
Right now, defence ceremonies are mostly held online – although they’re always attended by the beadle.
Sometimes an online ceremony actually comes in handy. Sara Rellstab, who obtained her doctorate at EUR, lives in Switzerland and was able to defend her dissertation from home.
The ceremony can be followed on a large screen in Senate Hall.
Online defences are also rounded off with the beadle entering and proclaiming ‘hora est!’.