The texts below were supplied by the candidates themselves and are published unedited (links were removed). Candidates were free to deliver a statement in both Dutch and English. EM didn’t translate the Dutch statements, so if candidates failed to deliver an English version, you will find the Dutch version below.
Mijn naam is Cagla Altin. Een jongedame van 18 jaar, woonachtig in de grote havenstad Rotterdam. Ik studeer momenteel rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Erasmus Universiteit. Naast mijn studie ben ik lid van de juridische faculteitsvereniging Rotterdam, daarnaast ben ik ook lid van het pleitdispuut D.J. Veegens. Verder heb ik een bijbaan bij de Albert Heijn en ben ik een actief ASA-talent van de hogeschool InHolland. Na mijn studie wil ik mij specialiseren in het notariële recht.
Voldoening uit het werk wat ik uitoefen staat bij mij op nummer één. Voldoening haal ik uit kennis en dank. Met mijn kennis en ervaring probeer ik een helpende hand te zijn voor mijn medestudenten die het hard nodig hebben. Kennis kent namelijk geen grenzen. Ik zie mijzelf graag in de situatie waarin mijn medestudenten op mij kunnen bouwen.
Al op 14-jarige leeftijd was ik zeer betrokken bij het bestuur binnen een school. Door mijn gedrevenheid had ik binnen de kortste keren een plekje gekregen in de medezeggenschapsraad, dit probeer ik nu weer te realiseren.
Ik kan mijzelf het best omschrijven als een sociaal persoon met veel wilskracht, een echte teamspeler die haar verantwoordelijkheden draagt. Als ik ergens voor ga, dan ga ik er ook écht voor. Ik neem graag initiatief en beschouw dit dan ook als één van mijn kwaliteiten. Ik ben ervan overtuigd dat ik de belangen van mijn medestudenten kan behartigen door te reflecteren, vergaderen en deze vervolgens te bewerkstelligen. Want denken, doen en doorzetten is durven!
I am involved in the Public Administration (ESSB), Law (ESL) and Philosophy (ESPHIL) programs. Many things are going well within the various faculties, but many things can also be improved. My goal within the university council is to retain the positive points and apply them throughout the university and put the points for improvement on the agenda and try to make it happen:
- Being able to adapt study to one’s own abilities and qualities instead of the other way around
- Equal opportunities for everyone, regardless of socio-economic situation, age, gender or disabilities
- Part-time students should be offered the same quality of education as full-time students
- Better supervision of the privacy of students and coordination with the students (including proctoring and corona measures)
- Taking more account of the mental health of the students by removing stress factors and pressure
- Improve relationship between the university council and the board
- Preparing students for an uncertain future labor market by involving more future employers
A strong university council helps you to get better education, to be a full member of the university community and to prepare well for a bright future!
Since the beginning of my university career, I have been crossing the river of student representation by feeling the stones. First as a student representative for my econometrics cohort and then as a student member of the ESE faculty council. Horace Mann declared that education was the “great equalizer of the conditions of men” This is the reason my efforts have been and will continue to be on the front of diversity and plurality. My vision is to maintain and elevate the EUR as a European University in which all can be themselves.
Previous year I have contributed to a range of projects to uphold this vision. One of these was research concerning the mental health of students and interventions that could be taken. Currently I am working on a proposal to make economic education more multiform and inclusive. Finally, I like to focus on increasing cooperation between various bodies of student representation, to give students a united front to make their voices heard. As a member of the University Council, I would like to continue my work on these fronts
I am Yusufhan Balci, a second-year econometrics student and current member of the ESE school council. In my free time I like to go out for a run with friends and to read. Next year I would like to be your daring liberal voice in the University council.
I am motivated to be a University Council member because I am highly driven towards change in the right direction. I have many ideas leading to positive change in EUR – one has already been heard by the Examination Board and is being implemented. By integrating my propositions with fellow students’ and Council members’ ideas, I would ensure community interests are upheld.
My priority as a University Council member would be to promote better communication between faculty and students, forming a mutual understanding and collaboration. The gap between students and faculty is broader than ever as a result of online education. Students are disoriented and feel abandoned by the University. My goal is to close that gap by instilling better communication within the faculty and working towards mutual understanding and transparency. An amicable relationship is an ultimate goal.
Furthermore, as University Council, we should address practical issues. It is essential that once education returns to campus, the 2024 sustainability strategy is maintained, and we consistently make strides towards the right direction. Students and staff must also feel safe from COVID-19 on campus. Therefore, I would ensure everyone’s comfortability and satisfaction when returning to the university buildings. I would achieve this by suggesting that different proposals are implemented to promote the safety and benefits of being on campus.
Considering those mentioned above, I believe I am the candidate to bring forth feasible ideas towards our University’s improvement.
My name is Iaroslav Darusenkov, I am from Moscow, Russia and currently I am a student of Pre-Master Economics and Business. I am 35 years old, and currently work as a real estate analytic. Next year I am going to take Master programme Data Science and Marketing analytics.
Throughout the course of this study year questions of students’ well-being and quality of studying process were of even higher importance than before. I appreciate a lot all that the University did during that time: from Well-being week to master-classes from different associations in order to help student to socialize, motivate them and gave them energy and inspiration to study. And I want to give back something, that I received, next study year, when I plan to take the Master programme.
During this year I am trying to implement the best practices I know in my own pre-master group. I organized separate study group, where students can discuss the material and study together. In addition to this I am organizing regular student informal meetings for students to getting know each other and making the sense of community, where they can feel safe and always welcomed, even if many students study outside Rotterdam or even the Netherlands. I am always willing to help others, whether it is questions of understanding study material or some other problems. Despite the fact that this activity is time and energy consuming, I find that this really motivates me and give me perspective in my own studies and life.
Gabriel Gomes Barros
I am Gabriel Gomes Barros, 21 years old and a first-year public administration student at Erasmus University. I was born and raised in Rotterdam and I feel most at home in Rotterdam, so I always wanted to study at the Erasmus University when I was younger. In my spare time I am involved in various boards and councils, for example I am the chairman of the youth council of the Rotterdam Rijnmond child protective services. I am also a board member of the national organization of experience experts in healthcare called Expex. I am also politically active, in 2018 I participated in the Rotterdam municipal elections with my own party, called Jong Rotterdam. I would like to be part of the university council because I want to contribute to a pleasant and safe learning environment for all students at EUR. I think it’s important for students to speak up and be involved in the university, my goal is to make sure that every student is heard. With my knowledge of Rotterdam, my board experience, and my experience with youth participation, I could be a great asset to the university council.
“Be the change you want to see in the world” ~ Mahatma Gandhi.
I am Zohra Hayat and I am a medical student at Erasmus MC, currently doing my clinical rotations (internships). In 2019-2020 I was a very active and involved member of the University Council. A few of my responsibilities were chairing meetings about topics such as research and education and meeting with the Executive Board to ensure that our education remained undisrupted during the first wave of COVID-19.
This year I took a break from the council to focus on my studies, which allowed me to really see the impact of the pandemic in my own studies like online education, proctoring and the limits medical students face during their rotations. Having had more time to reflect about the long-term effects of this pandemic, I realized the importance of the quality of our education, instead of just trying to ensure the least possible amount of study delay. The workload and stress both students and staff had to endure these last two years is unacceptable. Not to mention the loneliness a lot of (international) students had to face.
My focus next year will be ensuring the quality of education, the well-being of the Erasmus Community, and connecting more with faculties that are not based on our main campus, like Erasmus MC. Having the background, the experience, and the understanding make me the best candidate to implement changes that have a long-lasting impact. By voting for me you will vote for better education!
Dear fellow student,
Throughout my 4 years of studying at EUR, I have fulfilled multiple representing roles. This academic year, I have already been member of the University Council. During this year, I was one of the most active student members, I handed in most initiatives of the whole UC! Although much has been accomplished already, much remains to be done. For this exact reason I’m up for re-election.
The past academic year, I have defended the student’s interest. As promised in my previous campaign, I have fought for various concrete points:
- Proportional use of Proctor
- A CO2 neutral campus
- Recordings of lectures (also after Covid)
- More student housing in Rotterdam
- Reopening of campus
This is just a summary of the points I fought for. On various media channels you can read about my work. Next academic year I will again put in maximum effort to represent the voice of the students! May you have any concerns feel free to reach out to me on email@example.com.
If you want me to keep up the good work: vote Bram Heesen
Pi Cheng Hu
Last summer I wanted to apply for a position in the student council of ESE. During my year as a student representative in 2019/2020, I noticed one thing about professors. All of them had the best of interest for students when it came to education. I did not know professors cared so much about how students experience the education at Erasmus.
But that is only one view. How about pressure and mental wellness of students or personal development? These were not topics I discussed with professors, but these topics are inherently associated with education. We are not just teaching students how to think, we are educating and developing leaders of our society. That is why I essentially want to be part of the University Council.
It will be difficult to pick up where we left off before online education. Challenges, which are not solved by money, but rather require a cultural or mental change. We will stand for more appreciation towards students and staff. We will promote symbiotic relations, instead of competition. There must be more awareness for mental health, and that starts at the culture of the university.
It is the sum of everyone at Erasmus University, that makes Erasmus University. Let us take good care of each other then. Let us make a change. But I think these three points are a decent start.
- more University psychologists
- propaedeutic ceremony for all first-year students
- continuity of recorded lectures besides live lectures
Hey! I am Patryk Jarmakowicz, a 2nd-year MISOC student and a changemaker. Next year, I hope to represent you in the University Council. When I am there, I want to focus on (1) ensuring a smooth transition from online education back to campus with students’ voices being heard; (2) making Erasmus even more inclusive. This year I represented the ESSB students in the Faculty Council. Next year, I want to take everything I learned to another level and become a voice for all Erasmus students. As I have proven leading the MISOC students’ open letter efforts (see Erasmus Magazine), and leading my own NGO back in Poland, I know how to create a platform for dialogue and change. The transition back into the new-old reality of on-campus education will not be an easy process. Having our voices heard will be more important than ever to ensure the quality of education while maintaining our challenged well-being of both students and staff. Along with the post-corona transition, I want to make sure that Erasmus always creates an inclusive and safe environment for all students, regardless of nationality, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, disability, and age. We are on the right track, but we can always do better! If you have any questions or proposals for what can be improved at Erasmus, do not hesitate to contact me!
Rai Haider Ali Khan
With this letter, I would like to request for the opportunity to run for a position available as student council. Although, I am currently in the second year of my Bachelor in International History. Ever since I have known Erasmus for the last six years, I wanted to develop new ideas and administer changes that benefit students.
My first two setbacks in 2015 and 2017, I could not finish my first year bachelor and became financially unstable, which taught me a lot about getting back stronger. It’s never too late to make a positive change. During this transition, I replaced my lifestyle with the strategic realignment of my energy, time and focus in doing my small business and studies. After that day, I realized the significance of strategic solutions.
With this in mind, I want to make the university a better place for all students, Dutch or International, by this time going extra mile for all; the same way I have done for me and my peers. One idea is to build a connection with international university councils, such that students of Erasmus are welcomed with open arms when applying abroad. Furthermore, my main focus would be increasing the communication between the university management and the student council. So, Erasmians feel connected and represented. Especially, since Covid-19 the students have been largely disconnected from the campus. I want to bring forth sustainable communication with other universities, giving Erasmians the advantage of learning and thriving internationally. University Multicultural centre is accomplished by introducing live meetings with other university students enrolled in the same course, enabling new ideas. It will facilitate, convene, and coordinate intercultural engagement and inclusive leadership education on campus.
“Let’s make Erasmus a global phenomenon.”
My name is Jasper Klasen and I’m doing Master degrees in three faculties (ESL, ESHPM, EMC). In the past 5 years I have been an active member in several participatory councils within the EUR. These last two years I have been a member of the University Council. I would like to continue representing you! That is why I am seeking reelection.
The past years I have critically reviewed the university policy proposals, where I have fought for your interests. Being one of the most active council members, I have made countless proposals and have taken on a position of a true counterforce by asking critical questions about our university policy. My critical view is not always appreciated but it does ensure a better position for students.
Last year, I won a lawsuit against the University which now guaranteed all students the right to inspect their exam. Last mind I went on the National Radio to talk about the problems concerning proctoring, with a special emphasis on the 2nd camera. Additionally I have advocated for a more robust student participation, such as by switching towards a party system. Next to that, I have called for more recognition for extracurricular activities as well as a more diverse university, a good usage of additional funding and effective educational innovation.
The coming year I want to fight for a swift reopening of campus (in a safe way), I want to fight to reducing student stress, a strong student involvement and improving student wellbeing.
Do you want a student that fights for your interests? Vote Jasper Klasen.
In de inmiddels vier jaar dat ik studeer, heb ik veel leer en werk ervaring opgedaan. Ik heb gedurende deze periode veel kennis opgedaan en ik heb geleerd hoe belangrijk het is om als student je mening te uiten. Ik heb gemerkt dat op momenten die ertoe doen dat studenten een hele belangrijke rol kunnen en moeten spelen binnen een universiteit.
Zoals eerder vermeld heb ik vier jaar gestudeerd aan de Hogeschool Rotterdam. Gedurende deze periode heb ik een hoop meegemaakt waarover ik achteraf dacht: “kon ik hier maar iets aan doen”. Daarom wil ik graag deze kans aangrijpen om nu zelf studenten te vertegenwoordigen in de universiteitsraad, zodat ik er zelf daadwerkelijk iets aan kan doen. Ik wil graag studenten vertegenwoordigen om voor iedere student het optimale uit zijn of haar studententijd te halen en ervoor zorgen dat iedereen een prettige tijd op de Erasmus Universiteit heeft.
Met mijn ervaring en mijn enthousiasme zie ik dit als een enorm mooie kans voor mijzelf om mij op dit gebied nog meer te ontwikkelen. Hierdoor zie ik het als een mooie uitdaging om naast mijn studie betrokken te zijn binnen de universiteitsraad.
With this letter, I hereby apply for the University Council elections 2021. My name is Daemon, currently working as a financial advisor at Rabobank and studying economics at EUR. With my experience in finance, I believe we can make a change by advising the Executive Board to allocate our resources differently.
The many reasons in my application can be summarized in my vision to improve mental health and the cultural department of EUR, especially considering that the Culture Campus is coming in 2022. I have done three board years in cultural associations, two of them at EDS and one at WILDe. During these board years, it came to my understanding that students feel that EUR is not investing sufficiently into cultural associations, predominantly after SG had to cut their budgets from academic year 2020/2021 onwards. With that, I envision to expand our cultural horizon through the development of our relationship with the EUR cultural associations by facilitating their needs.
Moreover, I am a strong advocate of student wellbeing and safety. Prior to writing this letter, I have conducted numbers of orientation interviews with several students, each with different backgrounds, regarding their wellbeing and how safe they feel on campus. Evident to these interviews, there are several students that feel they are unheard by EUR in several cases such as depression, sexual assault, and other private circumstances. I firmly believe that we have the responsibility to better deliver support to our students in providing more tools and services of higher quality.
Amanda Lara Wall
Something that we can always do is improve our University. This is especially possible if the opinions of all members of this diverse and rich community are taken into account. I strongly believe that transparent communication between the student body and the University Council is key to achieve true representation and participation, and thus, strive to better this institution. In order to encourage students to make their voices heard and get involved in decision-making at EUR, motivated and committed student representatives who are interested in taking this responsibility in the University Council are of utmost importance. Therefore, as a student candidate, I want to assure whoever is reading that I will put in my best effort to communicate students’ opinions and ideas as well as my own, and that I will work hard to transmit any relevant information to students in order to build a closer relationship between all parts. Among all the work that student representatives perform, being a vehicle for direct and honest communication between students and other members of our community should be a main focus. As a student candidate, I am eager to be able to take on this role and represent the voice of the student body in the future, to put what I know into practice but also to learn and transmit to others everything that this opportunity has to offer. Finally, whoever you vote for in the end, I just want to truly encourage every student to get involved!
My fellow Erasmians,
First of all, my gratitude for you interest in the council elections. During recent times the way you study, or the way you started your “studententijd”, very much changed. Therefore, I think it is the duty of our university to be ambitious with regard to offering you more facilities for studying. Besides this there is an opportunity to be more vocal in representing and lobbying for the interests of students.
Our university has a focus on sustainability, which if done right is a very good thing. A sustainable way of studying would suit this. Think of ergonomical study places, and a campus that provides enough comfort. But also, of supporting a student life with diverse opportunities, because development and good education are not achieved by studying alone.
To conclude I shall tell something about myself. I’m doing my masters in Finance & Investments. In my spare time I like to do drinks and I’m currently training for the marathon. My prior experience in participation councils, my willingness to ask questions that others don’t, and my determination to get certain things right makes me a suitable candidate to represent your interests. I hope I can count on your vote.
I am a 1st-year student at Erasmus University completing a bachelor’s course in psychology. I have studied English literature in Syria, and have worked as an English, Arabic translator. Additionally, I have completed an English teaching propaedeutic phase in the Netherlands. During that time, I was an intern at both A.S Talma Primary School in Rotterdam and the secondary International School of the Hague. After obtaining the propaedeutic phase, I switched my previous study to follow my passion in pursuing a degree in psychology.
Interacting with others had always given me much satisfaction. I especially enjoy being in contact with my fellow students and co-workers. Being with and cooperating with people is something that suits me very well. Making other people attain their goals, and the process of getting to know them gives me much pleasure. I am a perfectionist, precise, and very patient.
The time I spent in teaching has given me a lot of experience with, for instance, making lesson plans, motivating, and creating a safe learning environment for my pupils to learn and acquire a foreign language. During my internship, I have gained a lot of knowledge about the Dutch education system and researched various theories on learning.
This knowledge was further expanded and explored in my current study. I have gained more knowledge on diﬀerent theories in psychology concerning human motivation and behaviour. Currently, I am an admin in the big group chat related to psychology. I periodically engage in discussions regarding the courses and exams. Being part of the student council can help me voice out students’ concerns and voices. I am genuinely interested in gaining more insight into the university regulations and being part of decision making.
I believe that this role is a good opportunity for me because it gives me a real position where I can practice working with others and learn about decision making; how decisions are constructed and why they are made.
Currently I am in my second year of BA.
I have always been a person with a strong opinion on education in general. That is why I strive to improve the education system at the Erasmus University. I believe that good education is one of the most important factors in prosperity. The world is changing fast and as one of the top Universities, Erasmus University Rotterdam should keep up with these worldwide changes.
What makes me a good fit for the University Council, is that I talk and listen to many students about the system and what changes are possible. One of my skills are my social abilities and powerful communication. I also have a natural feeling for leadership, and I want to pursue a career in this direction after I graduate. Often, I think about ideas to improve the Erasmus University Rotterdam. This opportunity enables the chance for me to make a real change and communicate with other people about it.
Our university is a great place, but great places require change to become the best. My name is Robbert Rog and I am running for candidate of the University Council. During my time at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam, I have acquired experience as a member of the Econometrics Programme Committee, and I have taken an active stance against 2-camera proctoring. To improve the status-quo of our university, I will fight for the following three points:
- Anonymised Applications: Your ethnicity or gender should not play a role in determining admission to a degree, extra-curricular programme, or job position Countless studies have shown that social biases remain prevalent, even when we try to overcome them. Therefore, I will stand for anonymized applications, wherever possible, whenever possible.
- Lowering Binding Study Advice to 54 ECTS: The BSA motivates students, keeps them on track, and makes sure that all students are on the same level. That being said, this does not justify the stress and performance anxiety of a 60 ECTS BSA. Allowing for the possibility to fail one course would alleviate students of pressure while maintaining the aforementioned benefits.
- Student Participation: The key to a university that meets the students’ wishes is to create an environment in which active student participation is not only possible but encouraged. Too often, we observe desynchronizations between the university’s policy and the needs of students. The opinions of student participation bodies and students should be treated as an integral part of policy-making.
My name is Friso Roos and I’m 22 years old, currently I’m finishing my masters in Policy Economics and my bachelor in Law. Next year I will start my masters in Law.
Corona has hit everybody very hard, but especially students have had a very rough year. All of us had to adapt quickly to a new reality with online teaching, proctoring and seeing our friends less in real life and more on a screen. Many students suffered mentally and worry about their future. As we, slowly, move back towards our normal lives, I believe it’s incredibly important that students receive the appropriate guidance both with their studying and their mental wellbeing.
While we are in the process of moving back to our pre-corona lives, we also have to open our eyes again for the issues we encountered before the pandemic. How can we improve the educational system and make it more efficient whilst the number of students, both nationally and internationally, keeps growing? What can we learn from the past year, especially from the online education? How can we ensure that our education still suits the needs of the students? And how can we ensure that diversity is assured in every level of our university?
I’m motivated to work on these issues. With my experience as representative of over 35.000 students in different commissions throughout the years, I also believe I have the capabilities to succeed in this mission. I hope I can count on your vote.
Dirk Jan Rosenmuller
Mijn motivatie is dat de Erasmus Universiteit in mijn opzicht de beste universiteit van Nederland is. De studenten, professoren en iedereen die bij de universiteit werkt zijn op zijn minst gezegd geweldig. Ik heb zo’n goede ervaring met de universiteit en ben zo trots dat ik mezelf een student mag noemen van de Erasmus Universiteit, dat ik nu iets terug wil doen. De Universiteitsraad is een perfecte mogelijkheid om mee te helpen aan het verbeteren van de universiteit. Ik weet zeker dat mijn inbreng in de Universiteitsraad een positieve bijdrage zal leveren en ervoor zal zorgen dat de Erasmus een nog betere universiteit zal worden dan het al is. Met mijn achtergrond in geschiedenis, waarbij ik onderzoekend, adviserend en kritisch geleerd heb te denken, zal dit zeker een goede bijdragen leveren aan de Universiteitsraad en de universiteit zelf. Ik zie me daarom ook als de juiste persoon voor een plaats in de raad en zal mijn uiterste best doen om die rol goed te vervullen als ik gekozen word.
Vote smart! Vote Anna!
My name is Anna and I would love to represent the interest of the Erasmus students at the Erasmus University Council. Previously, during my Bachelor studies I have served as the vice chair at one of The Hague University’s Faculty Councils. This experience has equipped me with the knowledge on the inner workings of the participation process and has further ignited the passion to represent my constituency.
There are two particular issues on which I’d like to focus:
- Online Examinations: the use of the second camera coupled with the increased stress level that many students experience during online examination may lead to them performing below their capabilities. That is why, to account for the increased stress, I would like to advocate for adding the grading curve to those students who have to take the exam online.
- Psychological Help: during the Covid-19 pandemic inability to connect with fellow classmates and lead a normal student life has resulted in feelings of loneliness and disconnection from the overall educational process as well as the wider Erasmus student community. Moreover, many university employees face increased work pressure, and struggle with the loss of social contact. That is why, the university shall invest more funds into the timely and appropriate psychological support of its students and employees.
I am always open to the new ideas and as well as problems that my fellow students face, so do not hesitate to contact me and vote for me as your representative!
Sven de Smit
Within the University Council it would be my goal to create an educational climate where commitment, unity and inclusivity play a central role. A university where students can proudly speak of an Erasmus-feeling. A meeting place where students can come together with students from within and outside of their own faculty. A democracy where everyone feels heard and at home. These goals are especially important since Corona has had such a significant impact on our community.
In my own way I want to contribute to the university at which I’ve been fondly studying for the past three years. Because of that, I believe that I have a good overview of the current state of affairs within our university. Furthermore, I am a proactive person who is able to put his own initiatives forward and communicate about them. At the end of the day, change starts with yourself and I would like to be the change I want to see within our university. In addition, I am socially concerned and I have a strong affinity with the development of the younger generation. It is for this reason that I am also active within my local political scene.
I hope to work with the Erasmus community in order to create a beautiful place where everyone feels at home!
My name is Timo Zandvliet and I’m a first-year Business Administration student. Being a student representative is something I always really enjoyed doing. So, when I heard about the University Council, I knew I couldn’t let this opportunity slide.
During high school, I’ve represented the students in all different councils. I was a member of the student council for four years, of which I was the chairman for two years. Besides that, I was part of both participation councils and represented the students on many other occasions. I’ve always enjoyed representing the interests of the students and made sure that the voice of the students was heard in all layers of the organisation. I was the force behind many positive changes asked for by the students and hope that I can do the same at Erasmus University.
As a member of the University Council, I will not only represent the interests of the students, but also the staff and the Erasmus University in general. My key focus would be to make sure that the transfer from the current COVID19 curriculum to the after COVID19 curriculum happens smoothly. Hopefully making it possible to go to a lecture on campus and watch the recording online. I’m not one to mince my words and definitely not a quitter. So, I’ll do everything within my power to represent all of you to the best of my ability. I’m looking forward to representing all of you in the University Council.
Note: Above, 24 of the 25 candidates are listed. One candidate requested specifically not to publish his name, photo or statement.